Pick two major monuments any time from the Bronze Age through the Hellenistic period. Describe the contextual information about those monuments (where, when, who, why) and discuss the role these monuments played within the role of their respective cultures.

Appropriate monuments for this discussion include the Great Sphinx of Giza, the Great Wall of China, the Temple of Athena, the Great Pyramids of Giza, Stonehenge, the Parthenon, the Temple Mount, and ancient Delphi. Each of these has a fascinating history and purpose, and each continues to stand as a monument to the past and a wonder of the present.

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The first step in completing this assignment is to choose two monuments. There are many possibilities here. The Great Sphinx in Egypt might be a good choice, as well as the Pyramids of Giza. The Temple of Athena in Athens would also be appropriate, as would ancient Delphi and the Parthenon. Other monuments may include Stonehenge (which was probably completed in the early Bronze Age), the Great Wall of China, or the Temple Mount in Jerusalem.

The next step in the assignment is to gather information about the chosen monuments. A discussion of the Great Sphinx of Giza, Egypt, for instance, should include a physical description of the monument, which is a lion with an Egyptian king's head made out of limestone. It was probably carved in the period of King Khafre (2558–2532 BC). Scholars still debate why this 240 foot long, 66 foot high sculpture was created. Some think it might have been a tribute to an Egyptian god; others wonder if there were (or are) hidden chambers beneath the Sphinx. It may even have been intended to remain a mystery and a symbol.

The Great Wall of China runs over 13,000 miles and has existed for over 2300 years. It was built over a long period of time beginning some time between 770 and 221 BC when the first part of the wall was built to protect trade and prevent invasion. Over the centuries, other emperors in several dynasties added to the wall. The wall is primarily built of brick, stone, soil, and sand, and was largely created by hand with only minimal tools. It stands between 16 and 26 feet tall and features towers and fortresses at various points.

The Temple of Athena in Athens is another good choice as it is part of the Parthenon complex, contains Greek architectural features, and lends itself to a discussion of Greek religion, including the goddesses Athena and Nike. The mysteries of the Pyramids of Giza or Stonehenge would also provide excellent options for research because of their connections to ancient religions, their enormous size, and their long endurance.

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