pharmacology of opioids Present the pharmacology of opioids, including chemical changes and mechanism of action.
The essential element of the pharmacology of opioids, discovered in 1973 by graduate student, Candace Pert, is that opioids attach to brain receptors that are in place for attachment to endogenously produced substances. Endogenous means "originating or produced within an organism, tissue, or cell" (American Heritage Dictionary, TheFreeDictionary.com). These endogenous substances that are meant to naturally attach to these brain receptors were identified in 1975 by by John Hughes and Hans Kosterlitz. They were identified as endogenous (naturally originated) morphines and given the combined name "endorphines."