Beyond formulating claims, drawing clear connections between claims and evidence, and addressing counterarguments, there are three different types of persuasive tactics one can use. We base our understanding of persuasive writing off of Aristotle, who defined persuasive writing in terms of three different appeals, meaning invocations: ethos, logos and pathos.
Ethos is an appeal, or invocation, of one's sense of ethics. We believe those we feel we can respect and trust, and we develop our sense of respect and trust based on peoples' own display of ethical conduct. Therefore, ethos establishes the trustworthiness of a speaker/writer through his/her character. Ethos can especially be displayed in any sentences that establish the speaker/writer as a credible authority on the subject. The Literary Devices dictionary gives the following example among others: "Doctors all over the world recommend this type of treatment" ("Ethos"). This example shows us that if we know the majority of doctors are in favor of the speaker's/writer's recommended treatment, then we are likely to believe in his/her authority on the subject and feel safe in the ethics of his/her reasoning.
Pathos translates from the ancient Greek to mean emotion and refers to an emotional appeal, or an invocation of emotions. In using this appeal, speakers/writers convince a person of an argument by getting that person to respond to the argument emotionally. Many examples of pathos can be found in literature. The Literary Devices dictionary gives us the following example from Mark Twain that clearly depicts the speaker's emotions and therefore invokes an emotional response from the reader:
He had meant the best in the world, and been treated like a dog--like a very dog. She would be sorry someday--maybe when it was too late. Ah, if he could only die TEMPORARILY! ("Pathos")
Logos is an appeal to one's logic. In using this technique, the speaker/writer uses logic to persuade a person through his/her own sense of logic. Logos will be the most frequently used appeal in persuasive speaking/writing. There are also two types of logos: inductive reasoning and deductive reasoning. When we use inductive reasoning, we use specific data to reach a generalized conclusion. When we use deductive reasoning, we use generalizations to reach a more specific conclusion.