You are correct in saying that each of the personalities have been used historically to define a person. In addition to the defining of the personality, each personality is aligned with an element, temperature and a bodily fluid. Here are the personalities, the matching element and the bodily fluid.
- Melancholic- Black Bile- Earth- Dry/Cold
- Sanguine- Blood- Air-Hot/Moist
- Phlegmatic- Phlegm- Water- Moist/Cold
- Choleric- Yellow Bile- Fire- Hot/Dry
Here is a list of the four major perspectives on personality:
The Psychoanalytic Perspective
The Trait Perspective
The Humanistic Perspective
The Social-Cognitive Perspective
I'm not sure I understand exactly what you'd like to explore in this conversation... Are you interested in finding parallels between the four ancient elements of personality and the four major contemporary perspectives on personality?
Or is the aim to draw a three-tier correspondence between the ancient elements of personality, the contemporary theories on personality, and four kinds of human temperment (four typical modes of personality)?