Following the Civil War, the continued frontier expansion of white settlers forced the Chinese, Hispanic and Native American groups into tightly knit communities. All of these groups banded together as communities—either willingly or by force—to preserve their language, traditions, and culture.
Chinese immigrants moved to urban centers across the United States after they finished the transcontinental railroad and became disillusioned by the California gold rush. Hispanic communities were given menial jobs in New Mexico and forced from their longtime homes in California. A growing number of neighborhoods, or barrios, in Los Angeles housed the increasing Hispanic population. Native Americans were relocated into smaller and smaller reservations, where they could maintain some semblance of their tribal hierarchy.
While some traditions survived the dominating white presence, cultural assimilation still changed the culture of many Chinese, Hispanic and Native Americans.