The components of a mixture can be separated by making use of physical properties. Here are some examples of separation procedures based on the differences in the physical properties of the components of a mixture:
1. Filtration - Solids can be filtered from liquids.
2. Distillation - Liquids with different boiling points can be separated by boiling and condensing.
3. Screening - Mixtures of different particle size, such as sand and gravel, can be separated with screens of various sizes.
4. Chromatography - Substances with different molar masses can be separated because of the different rates at which they move through another substance. Both gas and liquid mixtures can be separated in this way.
5. Magnetism - Ferromagnetic materials can be separated from other materials using a magnet.
6. Selective precipitation - Ions in a solution can be separated based on solubility. A second solution is added containing ions that form an insoluble precipitate with one type of ion in the first solution. The precipitate is then removed by filtration.