Part 1: Time Line and Identification: Put the following events in order, giving the year for each event. Additionally, explain in 1–3 sentences the significance of the event and how it can be related to tensions erupting into World War I.   Victory in Europe Day (VE-Day)Annexation of AustriaMolotov-Ribbentrop PactThe Ukraine FamineStart of Operation BarbarossaStalin DiesWarsaw Ghetto UprisingMunich PactThe Marshall Plan Berlin AirliftThe Wannsee ConferenceThe Warsaw Uprising   Part 2: Short Answer" Respond to the following questions in 4–5 sentences. 1) Auschwitz is often seen as the paradigm for Nazi concentration camps. How is this mistaken? 2) Frequently, people say that Hitler was elected by the German people, explaining the background of Hitler’s rise to power in the 1930s. Explain why this is problematic. 3) What is Babi Yari, and how is it emblematic for the first phase of the killing of Jews that became known as the Holocaust? 4) For most of the last 80 years, it was been widely accepted that the number of gentile Poles who died during WWII was essentially equal to the number of Jews with Polish citizenship killed during WWII, largely as the result of the Holocaust. Is this accurate? Where did this number come from? Why did the postwar Polish government make that claim? 5) Who was Gareth Jones and why did he stand out as a journalist? 6) What happened in the Katyn Forest in western Russia? Part 3: Short Essays: Respond to four of the following prompts, writing 1–2 paragraphs about each. A. The film The Cabinet of Dr. Caligari makes no mention of war, yet is arguably a response to the trauma of Germany losing World War I. Explain.   B. After World War II the US prioritized the creation of prosperous and stable industrial societies as the foundation upon which stable democratic societies could grow. How did this focus reflect a particular understanding of the reasons for the rise of fascism? What policies did the US implement in post–WWII Europe to achieve its goal of creating stable democracies?   C. In Bloodlands, Timothy Snyder speaks of double-occupation. What is he referring to, and how does he say it contributed to local collaboration with the Nazis’ persecution of the Jews?   D. For all the hopes for the transformation of Europe into a continent of democracies after the establishment of the new Wilsonian order in Europe, most European countries found it difficult to set up stable democratic systems. Using two examples other than Germany or the Soviet Union, discuss this problem.   E. What was appeasement? From the British and French perspective, why did it seem a logical response to Hitler’s demands for Treaty Revision? And given the lessons Britain and France drew from World War I, could they feasibly have pursued an alternative policy in the late 1930s that would have constrained Hitler?

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Part I

  1. The Ukrainian Famine or the Holodomor (1932–1933)
  2. Annexation of Austria (12 March, 1938)
  3. The Munich Pact (September 29, 1938 – September 30, 1938)
  4. The Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact (August 23, 1939)
  5. Operation Barbarossa (June 22, 1941 – December 5, 1941)
  6. Wannsee Conference (January 20, 1942)
  7. The Warsaw Ghetto Uprising (April 19, 1943 – May 16, 1943)
  8. The Warsaw Uprising (August 1, 1944 – October 2, 1944)
  9. Victory in Europe Day (VE Day - May 8, 1945)
  10. The Marshall Plan (April 3, 1948)
  11. The Berlin airlift (26 June 1948 – 30 September 1949)
  12. The Death of Joseph Stalin (March 5, 1953)

Part II

1. It is not a mistake, per se, to consider Auschwitz a paradigm for Nazi concentration camps; however, one must take into consideration the differences between Auschwitz and the other concentration camps, as well as the similarities. You can read more about that here. The main purpose of all camps was the killing of Jews.

2. This is very problematic because it implies that the majority of the voters, essentially, agreed with Hitler's views and ideals, which is simply not true. Hitler actually lost the election in 1932, and he gained power when the Nazi party appointed him chancellor in 1933. You can read more about this here.

3. Babi Yari is a large ravine located on the northwestern edge of Kiev, where Nazi German Einsatzgruppen mobile squads killed nearly 100,000 Jewish men, women, and children between 1941 and 1943. You can find more information about Babi Yari and its connection to the Holocaust here.

4. Yes, it is accurate, as more than half of the victims of the Holocaust were Polish Jews. According to several sources, nearly 3,000,000 Polish Jews were killed during the Holocaust, as well as over 2,800,000 gentile Poles and other Polish citizens. You can read more about the statistics and the origin of these claims here and here.

5. Gareth Jones was a Welsh investigative journalist who, essentially, exposed the Soviet Famine (including the Holodomor) and fearlessly wrote his stories using his own name. You can read more about his life and legacy here.

5. The Katyn Forest is known because of the Katyn Massacre, which lasted from April to May 1940. During this time, approximately 22,000 Polish military officers, policemen and intelligentsia were killed by the Soviet Union. You can read more about this here.

Part III

A. The Cabinet of Dr. Caligari is a 1920 German expressionist film, which is also considered by many to be the first horror film ever made. I have managed to find an article which thoroughly explains its context and its connection to WWI, as well as the state of Germany after the First World War.

B. One of the most popular US aid policies and programs was the 1948 Marshall Plan, also known as the European Recovery Program; the US gave twelve billion dollars to Europe in order to help with the rebuilding and recovery of the Western European economies and contribute to the betterment of the European economy and society, in general. You can read more about the Marshall Plan here.

C. Snyder's 2010 historical book Bloodlands is one of the most popular modern books written about the Holocaust. You can find more about both the context of the book and and the meaning and importance of the term "double occupation" here and here.

E. During the 1930s, the British and French government followed a democratic policy of appeasement—they negotiated with the dictatorial powers in order to prevent war and conflict. In other words, they gave Hitler what he wanted. You can read more about the appeasement and its consequences here.

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