In Cry, the Beloved Country, the overall theme presented in Book 3 is:
:one of forgiveness for sins and injustice
:one of sadness for the loss of tribal culture
:one of hope and promise for Kumalo's people
:one of despair over the rise in native crime, especially in Johannesburg
:one of anger and torment over a century of lost cultural chances
Are you asking me to select one of those options? To be honest, I think that all of those five options are very relevant to the last book, as we see the precarious future that South Africa faces through the eyes of Kumalo and Jarvis. However, if I had to pick one, I would probably go for the first. This is because whilst the final book makes it clear that there is massive sadness and also pessimism in spite of the optimism that Kumalo feels, as he does recognise that the land will not hold the people and there will be nothing he can do ultimately about the urbanisation that is drawing the young people, like his own son and sister, to Johannesburg. However, Kumalo's climb up the mountain to be by himself whilst he knows his son is being executed also points towards an ultimate forgiveness for sins and injustice that transcends all the problems that threaten to consume South Africa. There is definite pessimism and concern for the future, but at the same time there is also a reconciliation that is far more important than the other themes. This is what Kumalo realises on his lonely mountain top vigil, and this is the dominating theme.