gladwell says that, the succesful people are the ones who stand before kings may look like they did it all by themselves. But in fact they are invaribly the beneficiaries of hidden advantages and extraordinary opportunities and cultural legacies that allow them learn and work hard and make sense of the world in ways other cannot. For example in Canada. In the beginning, his advantage isn't so much that he is inherently better but only thathe is a little older. In the first chapter he also thinks that the story of hockey and early birthdays says about success. It tells us that our notion that it is the best and the brightest who effortlessly rise to the top is much too simplistic. But they also got a big head start, an opportunity that they neither deserved nor earned. And that opportunity played a critical role in their succes.
In the second chapter, Gladwell says that success is equal to talent and the prepreations. But the effect of talent is quite less than the preperation. So, the most important thing for success is prepreation. The question is how long will this time is. The answer lead us to 10000 hours. The professional athletes, writers, cmposers, chess players are the proof of this 10000 hours theory. For example, hockey player that born early, Bill Gates, Bill Joy, The Beatles etc. Gladwell believes that those people are the ones who used the opportunities that has given to them. In the third chapter, Gladwell says that, IQ works only up to a point. Once someone has reached an IQ of somewhere around 120, having additional IQ points doesn't seem to translate into any measurable real-world advantage. For example, Chris Langan's IQ is 195 and Einstein's IQ is 150 but it does not means that Chris Langan is smarter than Einstein. For, Gladwell the important thing for IQ point is its satisfactoriness. After having enough IQ the important thing is the other qualities you have, such as imagination and lateral thinking. In conclusion, success is not thing that we obtain by ourselves. There must be an opportunity and other qualifications in order to achieve success