I'm with #5; as more skilled people relocated, they needed to produce to survive, and this bolstered the local economies, allowing growth. As more money changed hands and businesses altered their practices to reflect the new influx of small shops or skilled trades, people moved into more centralized locations to access the varied products and services. This was also a time when living areas vs. farming areas were beginning to separate; as transportation technology improved, people could eat food farmed elsewhere instead of growing it themselves.
It also closed European access to trade routes (though some historians argue that this is overstated.) As we know, this stimulated the drive in Europe to look to exploration as a means of securing profitable trade routes to Asia. The Atlantic World was not necessarily born in this process, but it certainly expanded, and became the scene of enormous transfers of wealth and people.
According to The Applied History Research Group, two things relating to the capture of Constantinople helped speed the advance of Europe. The first is that after Constantinople fell in 1453, Europeans, over the ensuing century, were finally able to begin accumulating victories against the Islamic Ottoman Turks following the 1529 move up the Danube toward Vienna. Internal disputes within Ottoman ranks meant Europeans had a fighting chance. Incursions against European cities eventually ceased after this. The second is that persons fleeing Ottoman rule in Constantinople escaped to the Latin speaking West bringing with them their Greek-based Hellenistic learning. This Greek influence was a spur to the growing Renaissance humanism.
One might argue that this conquest helped give the European Christians a sense of being endangered themselves. Ironically, fear of danger is often a spur to internal development, as the technologies invented by our own military-industrial complex have shown.
When the Ottoman Turks took over Constantinople, there created an exodus of skilled people to the continent. In other words, many intellectuals from the East came to settle in Italy. This was partially the catalyst for the Renaissance movement. We need to keep in mind that the East had great achievements in scholarship and other areas. So, when these capable people came to the West, it was a great benefit.
Perhaps we could argue as well that the Ottoman conquest of Constantinople had the effect of making European powers realise that they needed to not think so much about attacking and claiming Jerusalem in the Crusades but that it was far more important to look to their own defensive strategies. Having a potential enemy on your doorstep would have greatly changed the focus of many governments, I would imagine.
I would also add that the fall of the Byzantine Empire created a change in the balance of power. It also was part of an eventual general move away from the empires of old to the more modern sovereign states. Everything is inter-connected.
I have never heard this argument before, but I'll try to speculate. Perhaps it is because the fall of the Byzantine Empire made it clear that there would no longer be any chance of of retaking the Holy Land by crusades. It also meant that there was no longer any need to help the Byzantines resist Muslim rule. These things allowed Western Europe to turn inwards and to put its energies not towards Crusades and such but towards economic development.
I think this gave a wakeup call to The Christians in Europe.
On 29 May 1453, Turkish sultan II.Mehmet conquered Constantinople (Modern name, Istanbul). This situation has several effects on both Turkish and the Europe history. First, it is still a discussion for historians, it is accepted as the situation that ends mediavel and starts new age in history (Some historians think that this event should be the "Discover of America" instead of conquest of Constantinople). Anyway, there are two major effects of Conquest of Istanbul to quick advancement of Western History. As we all know, those days at ancient Byzantium, there were lots of scientist. Those scientists' knowledge can not be compera to todays scientists but they were the enlightened ones of those days and they escape from the Byzantium after conquest to Europe and created the background of Protestant Reform and Renaissance. These two events are the infrastructers of French Revolution. That is one effect. The other one is, in my opinion it is the more important than the other, the system of Feudalism desteroyed. By the help of cannons that sultan II.Mehmet used, it has understood that the cannons are extremly effective for destroying the walls of castles. There can be several reasons that can be considere as an effect of development of Europe but for me this are the most important ones.
I think that the Ottoman Empire was more evolved
Thus, this development moved to Western Europe through Constantinople.