This is a great question. It is important to know that the fifth command is found in two places in the Old Testament/Hebrew Bible. It is found in Exodus 20 and Deuteronomy 5. As you correct state, the fifth commandment forbids taking the life of a person.
There are several applications of this commandment apart from the most obvious way of not killing anyone. Here are few ways.
First, if you look at the spiritual intention of his commandment, then you will have to address the heart, from where all things come, according to a biblical worldview. In this sense, you must not have a murderous heart. This means that you should not wish anyone harm or ill. Instead, we should do just the opposite, be filled with love.
Second, when we come to the New Testament, Jesus actually addressed this question. Some people were feeling pretty good about themselves, because they kept the commandments of God. However, Jesus stated that the true implication of the commandments, they have actually neglected. Matthew 5:21-22:
"You have heard that it was said to the people long ago, ‘You shall not murder, and anyone who murders will be subject to judgment.’ But I tell you that anyone who is angry with a brother or sister will be subject to judgment."
When we begin to think about the commandment in light of this, we can make many more deductions - do not envy, do not be filled with bitterness, and do not harbor malice.