Atmosphere presence and distance are factors of a planet's surface temperature. An atmosphere will reflect the heat energy gained from the sun back towards the planet that the atmosphere surrounds. In this way, the atmosphere acts like a large blanket that surrounds the planet. Thus, the thickness of a planet's atmosphere and the planet's surface temperature are directly related. However, as a planet's distance from the Sun increases, the planet's temperature decreases because the Sun's energy is lost to other objects as it travels through space. Thus, planet distance and surface temperature are inversely related.
The planets, ordered from hottest to coldest surface temperatures, range from Venus to Neptune with Venus and Mercury being in reverse order from their distance from the sun. Pluto is not technically a planet anymore, but it is further out and colder than Neptune. The temperature values reflect degrees Celcius.
Sun (not a planet, but part of our solar system)= 5800 degrees Celsius
Mars = -60 (negative degrees Celcius)
Jupiter = -150
Saturn = -170
Uranus = -200
Pluto (not technically considered a planet any longer) = -220