One reason that Indian families have so many children is because the high ______ means that many children don't live into adulthood.
The answer is high infant mortality rate. This is brought about by many reasons and is not specific, obviously, to India, but to all least developed and developing nations. With proper health care and education for women, this can be alleviated.
The term you're looking for is infant mortality, which is a statistic used to measure the general health conditions in a given country. It doesn't actually mean someone who doesn't live into adulthood, but rather someone who does not live past the age of five. In countries where poverty is common, such as India, and where the water and health systems are, in places, of questionable quality, infant mortality is typically higher.
Another reason, however, for India's high birth rate is that it is culturally preferable to have sons, and many families will either keep having children until they have a son, or practice abortion, sex selection, or even infanticide. The government has tried hard to stop such practices, but they still go on.
In the poorer regions and slums, access to and knowledge of family planning and birth control are relatively rare.
Perhaps the intended phrase for the blank to be filled in the given sentence is "infant mortality" or "child mortality". This implies that because parents are not sure if all their children will continue to live, they prefer to have more children. I am not sure to what extent this reasoning is really true.
The reasons for greater number of average number of children in India include the following.
- Comparatively younger age at which people get married.
- General lack of awareness about need and method of birth control.
- General desire to have male heir. This means that couples continue to have children till they have at least one male child.
- Ease of bringing up children because of joint family system in India. This means that there are many more members in the family including aunts, uncles, cousins and grand parents to look after young children.
- Lower prosperity levels. It has been observed worldwide that birth average rate in a country declines with increasing prosperity levels
Before I close, It will be proper for me to point out that present infant mortality rate in India is not as high as it used to be in the past. Also, there is considerable drop in the birth rate in recent years.
One reason that Indian families have so many children is because the high infant death rate means that many children don't live into adulthood.
This figure is used to describe the amount of infant death's that occur in a specific country.