"Of course, both are same." Is this phrase correct as written?  

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The sentence is not correct.

"Same" is a subject complement. A subject complement is a word that follows a linking verb and says something about the subject of the sentence. In this sentence, "both" is the subject. "Are" is the linking verb. "Same" is the subject complement. "Same" renames the subject "both."

"Same" functions as a pronoun, renaming the noun "both." Since it renames a specific, definite pair of things—a specific "both" and not just any two "boths" in the universe—it needs the article.

This is a tricky example to explain, because the word "both" and the word "same" are very general words—they are abstract nouns. "Same" might seem to be an adjective—an attribute describing "both"—but it isn't; "same" isn't an attribute, which would not need an article. It doesn't tell us more about the object(s); it simply renames them.

The sentence "Mary is girl" is a clearer example of this. The subject complement "girl" is a noun that is specifically referring to Mary; she is "the" girl, the specific Mary in question.

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If you want to keep this exact phrasing, you'd definitely need to insert the article the:

Of course, both are the same.

But the same does note that the two objects/qualities are exact replicas. So you might want to try a phrasing that leaves room for some differences:

Of course, both share similarities.

Additionally, be careful in using "of course" too casually or too frequently in writing. It has the same effect as the word "obviously" when used too directly. If it's so obvious (of course), why is it worth noting? Often the phrase can be eliminated, and it actually gives more strength to your writing or argument:

The two have similarities.

You could even use a modifier with similarities to give the phrase further strength:

The two share striking similarities.

The ideas have significant similarities.

The buildings have structural similarities.

The players share historical similarities.

The modifier could provide a transition to allow for you to shift the focus to your next segment of writing.

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Again, without knowing the context of this sentence, it is extremely difficult to provide more than mere grammatical advice.  However, if yours is a comparison/contrast assignment, it may be better to use the word similar rather than the same since rarely are two things, circumstances, people, ideas, etc. exactly the same.  Usually, they only share some points that are the same--not all.  Therefore, the word similiar is more appropriate.

If you search for transition words, you should be able to find these important connecting words for comparison/contrast essays and such that will enable you to set up the differences and similarities that you want.  There is one site listed below which can be of help to you.

Also, see the enotes topics section since there are aids in writing such things as comparison/contrast essays. One of these is also listed for your convenience.

Good luck.

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The only thing that is clearly wrong about this sentence is that it needs a "the" between "are" and "same."   In other words, it needs to say "of course, both are the same."  You cannot say "they are same."  Instead, you must say "they are the same."

Without knowing what the rest of your paragraph is saying, I cannot tell you for sure that this sentence is now perfectly correct.  It may not go properly with the sentences that come before it.  However, just on its own, it is a grammatically correct sentence once you put "the" in.

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