If Odysseus had gone straight home from Troy and found his palace infested by suitors, how would he have behaved? What would be the result?
What does he need to learn in order to reclaim his throne, palace and family? From whom does he learn? Give specific examples.
Well, this is an interesting question, but I don't think it can be answered in the way you are thinking. Odysseus was an old-school badass. He fought the good fight at Troy and was victorious. Had he gone home at that time to find his home infested with suitors he likely would have slaughtered them all out of hand, or he and his men would have dispatched with them. You don't mess with a guy like Odysseus's wife.
An argument could be made that, because these men were generally the well-to-do fellas of the area, Odysseus would have let them scatter to the winds upon his return in order to avoid any upheaval that would have come from killing them. I'm not sure about this, though. Odysseus is a passionate man. Of course, a lot of that passion came about from his adventures returning home, so you never know.
But the reality is that his palace wouldn't have been overrun by suitors. The suitors are only there because Odysseus has been gone so long that everyone thinks he is dead. This has made the suitors bold. If Odysseus had come straight home from Troy the suitors never would have been at his house in the first place.
I personally don't think he had to learn anything in order to reclaim his throne and family. His strength and courage was enough to overcome them, and his family never gave up faith in him. They didn't need to be "reclaimed" because they had never left.