How do the nucleus and ribosome work together in the process of protein synthesis?

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The nucleus and ribosomes both involve messenger RNA (mRNA) during protein synthesis. The mRNA is made during transcription within the nucleus. The mRNA then travels out to the cytoplasm via a nuclear pore of the nucleus. Here, the mRNA works with ribosomes, tRNA, and rRNA to make proteins in the process...

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The nucleus and ribosomes both involve messenger RNA (mRNA) during protein synthesis. The mRNA is made during transcription within the nucleus. The mRNA then travels out to the cytoplasm via a nuclear pore of the nucleus. Here, the mRNA works with ribosomes, tRNA, and rRNA to make proteins in the process known as translation.

As mentioned above, transcription and translation are the two phases of protein synthesis. Each process is described in more detail below.

During transcription, the two strands of DNA unwind. One of the strands serves as a template from which an mRNA strand is made. Each set of three nucleotides on an mRNA is called a codon. These codons will be important in the second phase of protein synthesis called translation.

After the mRNA is created during transcription, it migrates to the cytoplasm via a nuclear pore. 

During translation, mRNA, ribosomes, rRNA, tRNA, and amino acids work together to make the protein strand.

Once in the cytoplasm, the mRNA and ribosomes attach. The ribosomes serve as scaffolds that match the mRNAs codons to the anticodons on the tRNAs. Anticodons are sets of three nucleotides on the base of a tRNA that are complementary to mRNA codons. Amino acids are attached to the tops of eacg tRNA. Thus, the pairing of complementary codons and anticodons ensures that the amino acids of proteins are placed in the correct sequence.  

As a ribosome moves down a mRNA during translation, additional tRNA anticodons are matched with their complementary mRNA codons. In this way, a protein strand grows in length.  When two amino acids are adjacent to one another, a peptide bond forms. The polypeptide chain continues to grow until a stop codon is reached on the mRNA. At this point, the polypeptide chain is complete.

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