Several of the characters in the Harper Lee novel, To Kill a Mockingbird, serve as surrogate mothers and fathers to various characters. In addition to the previously answered--Calpurnia to Jem and Scout; Aunt Rachel to Dill; and Miss Maudie to Scout--there are several other examples.
Aunt Alexandra serves as a mother substitute to her grandson, Francis, who is often left by his parents with her at Finch's Landing. When she comes to stay with Atticus in Maycomb, she also attempts to serve in that role for Scout and Jem with mixed success.
Following the death of Mr. and Mrs. Radley, the older son, Nathan, returns from Pensacola to take care of his brother, Boo; in effect, the brother becomes the father.
Even the pathetic Mayella Ewell serves as a substitute mother for the rest of her siblings, whose mother has apparently died, leaving Bob as the only other adult member of the family.
Calpurnia - plays a mother substitute to Jem and Scout
- she has raised them their whole lives, and they respect her and obbey her like a mother
Aunt Rachel - plays a mother substitute to Dill
- takes care of Dill each summer
Miss Maudie - plays a mother substiture for Scout
- is a person who is a motherly figure and friend to Scout, whom she can talk to more then Atticus about certain things