I would agree with this assessment. I think that the effective manager understands that not all employees work towards the end of self- actualization. There are many who identify their own ends as separate from the realm of work. This is echoed in the thinking of analysts like Marx, who understood that one of the critical elements of capitalism was not the identification of self in work, but rather that labor and one's identity might be separate from one another. There are many who choose to not identify themselves with their work, and the modern manager has to understand this in order to gain greater effectiveness in managing these particular individuals. Part of this might involve tailoring an approach to bring these workers into the fold, even through their motivations and desires might lie outside of the realm of work. For employees who do not seek self- actualization as their end result of work, managers can still entice these employees to produce quality work by finding what their motivation or ultimate goal in the work setting might be. It is here that the manager's understanding of his employees is a critical element.