Both stories are about a father and son trying to survive in a concentration camp. The most significant difference between the situations is the ages of the sons. Elie was nearly grown and understood what was happening around him. Giosuè was much younger and did not understand.
Both fathers strove to protect their sons from the horror they experienced, but they did so in different ways. Elie’s father taught him how to survive and, in that way, protected his life. Giosuè’s father protected the boy's still-developing mind by shielding him from understanding what was happening. That way his mind would not be warped by seeing the horror. In effect, he did not see it at all.
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