Neurotransmitters play a vital role in behavior. Choose four of the following neurotransmitters. Discuss the functions of four neurotransmitters...?
...and the resulting effects of an excess and a deficiency.
Neurotransmitters are chemicals that allow the transmission of signals in neurons. They are found in the synapses and on the axon endings of the nerve cell which carry information from the point of origin to the brain and are produced in glands. Here are some of the most common neurotransmitters in human bodies.
Glutamate – functions in memory related synapses, fast excitatory synapses and modifiable synapses. Excess of which can cause seizures, neuron cell death due to cytotoxicity and Lou Gehrig's disease. Glutamate deficiency can lead to weakened negative feedback mechanism.
Acetylcholine – functions in the neuromuscular junctions that connect motor neurons to muscle tissues. Acetylcholine excess can cause muscular paralysis and deficiency of which can cause memory loss, uncontrolled muscle movements and permanent dementia.
Dopamine – regulates motor behavior, emotion-related synapses which include pleasure and motivation or reward mechanisms. Parkinson’s disease has been connected to low levels of dopamine while Schizophrenia to those with relatively high levels of dopamine.
Serotonin – functions to regulate mood and behavior which is directly related with appetite, sleeps, emotions, wants and needs, memory, learning and organ functions. Low levels of serotonin leads to depression, anger management problems, carbohydrate craving and sleeping problems. High levels of serotonin will drop your dopamine and norepinephrine and may cause anxiety and depression. It is commonly called “serotonin syndrome”.