Extended metaphor: The hind (deer) represents a specific woman throughout.
Alliteration: "Whoso list to hunt, I know where is an hind, / But as for me, hélas...." Another: "she fleeth afore / Fainting I follow. I leave off therefore...."
Assonance: "Whoso list to hunt, I know where is an hind, / But as for me, hélas, I may no more. / The vain travail hath wearied me so sore...."
Rhyme: more/sore/afore/therefore, hind/behind, blame/tame, doubt/about
Allusion: Noli me tangere ("touch me not") alludes to John 20:17: (Jesus to Mary): Jesus said, "Do not hold on to me, for I have not yet ascended to the Father. Go instead to my brothers and tell them, 'I am ascending to my Father and your Father, to my God and your God.'"
Paradox: The poet suggests any other man should pursue the woman, even while he talks about how untamable she is (that is, he won't catch her).
Caesura (a break in the middle of a line): "Fainting I follow. I leave off therefore..."
Enjambment (running one line to the next without punctuation to give pause): "but as she fleeth afore / Fainting I follow."
Personification: "Yet may I by no means my wearied mind / Draw from the deer...." His mind is personified as a hunter (a human) in its own right.