FINCH'S LANDING. The Finch family homestead is not far from Maycomb, "some twenty miles east of Finch's Landing." (Chapter 1)
THE MAYCOMB TOWN SQUARE. Among the buildings and businesses located here are the Maycomb Bank, where Atticus has his office; the Maycomb Jail, "the most venerable and hideous of the county's buildings." It stood between Tyndal's Hardware Store and The Maycomb Tribune office. The OK Cafe and the Drug Store stand on the northeast corner, while the Jitney Jungle and V. J. Elmore's are located on the southwest corner. (Chapter 15)
THE FINCH'S NEIGHBORHOOD. Atticus' house sits on the main street (unidentified) in Maycomb. Miss Stephanie's house and Miss Maudie's house sits directly across the street. Miss Rachel lives next door to the Finches, and Mrs. Dubose lives next door to Miss Rachel. Across the street from Mrs. Dubose is the boarding house in which Mr. Avery lives. The Radley house is located at the end of the street three houses down from the Finches. A deer pasture is located behind the homes on Atticus' side of the street. (Chapter 4)
I have included a link below to eNotes' excellent map of Maycomb.
Maycomb, a town, "some twenty miles east of Finch's Landing," is modeled after Harper Lee's hometown of Monroeville, Alabama, a town renamed from Centerville in honor of James Monroe, the fifth president of the United States. It remains a very small town of under seven thousand people, but it has been deemed the literary capital of the state as re-enactments of the trial of Tom Robinson are held every year in the famous courthouse.
Like many a Southern county seat of the time, the courthouse holds center stage to the businesses, and there is a street that circles around it. It is in the courthouse that Atticus once had his office, but he has since moved to a quieter office inside the Maycomb Bank building. The south side of the courthouse is "deserted." Located near the northwest side of the courthouse is Tyndal's hardware store, and north of it are the jail and the Maycomb Tribune offices, on the northwest corner of the square:
The Maycomb jail was the most venerable and hideous of the county's buildings. . . Starkly out of place. . . the Maycomb jail was a miniature Gothic joke one cell wide and two cells high, complete with tiny battlements and flying buttresses. . . It stood on no lonely hill, but was wedged between Tyndal's Hardware Store and The Maycomb Tribune office (Chapter 15).
Northeast of town is the area referred to as Old Sarum, where the Cunningham clan resides, along with others who are residents of the county. On the southern end of town, there is the garbage dump, near which is an old "Negro cabin" where the Ewells dwell.
The cabin’s plank walls were supplemented with sheets of corrugated iron, its roof shingled with tin cans hammered flat, so only its general shape suggested its original design. . . Its windows were merely open spaces in the walls. . . covered with greasy strips of cheesecloth to keep out the varmints that feasted on Maycomb’s refuse (Chapter 17).
Farther down the road where the Ewells live is the "Negro Quarters." That is where the Robinsons live and the African M.E. Church is located. The church and homes are "outside the southern town limits, across the old sawmill [railroad] tracks" (Chapter 17).