In chapter 11, Scout is having a conversation with her father concerning Mrs. Dubose's derogatory, racist comments. When Scout asks her father if he is a "nigger-lover," Atticus responds by saying,
"Nigger-lover is just one of those terms that don’t mean anything—like snot-nose. It’s hard to explain—ignorant, trashy people use it when they think somebody’s favoring Negroes over and above themselves. It’s slipped into usage with some people like ourselves, when they want a common, ugly term to label somebody" (Lee, 112).
In chapter 23, Atticus has a conversation with Jem about the outcome of the Tom Robinson trial. Atticus then explains to Jem that the jury's decision to convict an innocent man was simply based on Tom's race. Atticus proceeds to tell Jem,
"As you grow older, you’ll see white men cheat black men every day of your life, but let me tell you something and don’t you forget it—whenever a white man does that to a black man, no matter who he is, how...
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