Octavian Augustus (Gaius Julius Caesar Octavianus), Grand-nephew of Julius Caesar, became Caesar of Rome in 27 BC. Marc Antony had taken power shortly after the murder of Julius Caesar by Cassius and Brutus in the Roman Senate in 44 BC. Octavian Augustus, with the backing of his Great-Uncle's supporters, defeated Marc Antony in 43 BC, and was declared a consul by the senate, forming the second Triumvirate with Marc Antony, and Marcus Lepidus. The triumvirate defeated the supporters of Cassius and Brutus in Phillipi, Macedonia in 42 BC. It then slowly disintegrated and Octavian emerged victorious.
Augustus' reign began the Pax Romana, a 200 year time of peace in the entire world. Augustus presided over most of the developments that Rome was famous for: Currency, Trade, Postal service, roads, aqueducts. He died of natural causes in 14 AD.