- Navigate to the threaded discussion below and write a 100-150 word essay about one Renaissance artist or musician and one Baroque artist or musician. Include the following criteria in your essay:
- Full name of the artist or musician
- Birthplace and date
- Overall style characteristics
- Genres used by the artist or musician
- Original Ideas (Styles, Forms, Techniques)
- Major Contributions
- Definitive Works (Most famous contributions)
- Important Students (If any)
- Death date and place
- Try to place the artist or musician in the context of history.
My chosen artist is Michelangelo
My chosen musician is Scarlatti
[Since Enotes does not provide essays, and this request is rather broad, your 13 points will be covered in order.]
1. Michelangelo Buonarroti
2. Florence, 1475
3. In 1488, he entered Ghirlandaio's workshop, but after a year he transferred to the tutelage of Bertoldo de Giovanni in the Medici antique sculpture garden, a type of academy. During the upheavals that followed the death of Lorenzo the Magnificent, having lost his patronage, also, Michelangelo left Florence for Rome in 1496. But, his David is clearly Florentine as it exudes latent power.
4. In Rome, Michelangelo was commissioned by the Pope to create his massive tomb monument with forty figures, so other sculptors worked with him. Of the finished tomb, only the magnificent seated Moses is Michelangelo's alone. When Michelangelo was commissioned by Pope Julius II to paint the Sistine Chapel, the young sculptor objected, contending that he was no painter. But, he lay on the scaffolds unaided for the most part and painted a vision of the aspirations of the human to the divine, accompanied by a magnificent combination of Florentine grace with Roman grandeur. There is the depiction of the Creation, the Flood, and the drunkenness of Noah in a union of classical elements with Christian that may have come from the Neoplatonic theories that circulated in the Florentine courts of Lorenzo.
In Florence, Michelangelo worked from 1516 to 1534 on the tombs of Lorenzo and Giuliano de Medici and in the Medici Chapel. However, his Last Judgment fresco reflects the more pessimistic point of view with which he had returned to Rome. Art critics comment on this fresco in the Sistine Chapel as reflective of a post-Reformation gloom as a wrathful Christ and the terrible punishments dealt to the damned, and muscular, contorted figures replaced Michelangelo's earlier, more graceful nudes.There is also an intense piety in these frescoes.
5. Michelangelo's sculptures removed all the stone around figures so that the beauty of their form could be appreciated. His work in marble is finer than any sculptors who have followed him; for the surfaces are so smooth and refined, the viewer almost expects them to be warm. Michelangelo did not restrain himself with proportion on human figures, feeling that the "idea" was more important. For instance, his statue of David has his eyes directed to Rome, David's head is unusually large, as are his hands, especially his right hand with which he will slay Goliath.
6. Michelangelo called himself a sculptor, but his long assignment on the Sistine Chapel places him among the masters in painting.
7. (see No.5)
8. His major contributions are David, La Pieta, and Moses. But, there are so many more: the Sistine Chapel, especially the depiction of Adam touching the finger of God and the Last Judgment; the tomb of the Medici; his effect upon European art has been immeasurable.
9. Michelangelo's sculptures are definitive, especially David, Moses, and the Pieta.
11. (already covered)
12. 1564 in Rome (age 88)
13. For three centuries after his death, scarcely any artist of consequence who expressed ideas through the use of the human form has remained untouched by the influence of Michelangelo. His effect upon European art is incalculable. He may well be the greatest artist of the Renaissance.
- Alessandro Scarlatti
2. Born in Sicily, 1660,
3. Scarlatti trained in Rome
4. Scarlatti had several patrons, among them the exiled Queen Christina of Sweden who made him her Maestro di Cappella, Cardinal Pamphili, and Cardinal Ottoboni, an insatiable music lover,and, in Florence, Prince Ferdinando de Medici.
5. Scarlatti moved to Naples in 1684 where he became the master of Neopolitan Baroque music.
6. For the next two years, opera was composed and performed by Scarlatti. 7. It was Scarlatti who began the three-act format of opera. He also altered the characters from mythological types to royalty and their courts, lovers and servants..
8. Scarlatti's sinfonia, or opera overture, became standard for operas. In fact, concert symphonies can be traced back to Scarlatti. In these forms, Scarlatti began to experiment with orchestral "color," or instrumental variations. He also tried orchestral writing and some chamber music.
9. La Griselda (his last opera), sonatas for flute, the opera Telemaco
10.Johann Adolph Hass, a German composer known for his serious-type of operas.
11. Scarlatti tried to work in Rome at Santa Maria Maggiore, but the meagre salary forced him back to Naples. Even there, the opera houses had been closed.
12. Scarlatti spent his late years as a teacher, dying in either late 1724 or early 1725.
13. Scarlatti made in-roads in the structure of opera, orchestral composition, and sonatas for flute.