How did traditional beliefs and practices aid and/or hinder the development of “modern” nationalist movements in Africa and Asia? Were these beliefs and practices as influential in this development process as colonial policies and military power?
One could argue that traditional beliefs and disagreeements between Hindus and Muslims in India, for instance, hampered the rise of a "modern" nationalist movement in that country. Because of these religious differences, huge numbers of people were slaughtered when India achieved independence, and, of course, relations between India and Pakistan have been hostile ever since.
In some ways, tradition hindered the development of modern national movements. This was particularly true in places where there were multiple ethnic groups within one colony. These ethnic divisions (which can be seen as traditional) made it hard to unite against the colonizers.