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In 1956, Howard Smith, Virginian member of the House of Representatives and chairman of the House Rules Committee, introduced to the House Floor the Declaration of Constitutional Principles, also called the Southern Manifesto. The declaration rebelled against the Supreme Court's Brown v. the Board of Education decision in 1954 determining "separate but equal" to be unconstitutional and demanding the integration of Southern schools. The argument behind the declaration was that the Brown decision "trespassed upon states' rights" (History, Art and Archives United States House of Representatives, "The Southern Manifesto of 1956").
The declaration was signed by 101 congressman, all from the 11 states that once made up the Confederacy. More specifically, 82 members of the House of Representatives signed it as well as 19 senators. However, there were three Southern senators who did not sign it: Senator Estes Kefauver of Tennessee; Senator Albert Gore, Sr., of Tennessee; and Senator Lyndon B. Johnson of Texas.
Notably, Albert Gore is the father of he who became Vice President Al Gore, and Lyndon B. Johnson was elected Vice President under John F. Kennedy and took over the presidency after Kennedy's assassination (Today in Civil Liberties History, "'Southern Manifesto': Southern Members of Congress Pledge to Defend Racial Segregation").
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