Name the various kinds of handicaps applied to people, and why there are quite a few.
The following is a list of different types of handicaps. I will also list examples for each type and talk about the whys of each handicap. Bear in mind that this is not an exhaustive list.
1) Mental illnesses
These include eating disorders, anxiety disorders, psychotic disorders, addictions, post traumatic stress disorders, personality disorders and obsessive-compulsive disorders. Causes include hereditary conditions, substance abuse, prenatal injury and infections.
2) Physical disability
There are two major categories: musculoskeletal (loss or deformity of limbs, osteogensis imperfecta, muscular dystrophy) and neuromusculo disability (cerebral palsy, spina bifida, head injury, stroke, poliomyelitis, spinal cord injury). These types of disabilities may stem from injury, viral infection, or hereditary conditions.
3) Speech and language disorders/learning disabilities
Speech/language disorders include stuttering, apraxia, voice disorders, aphasia, etc. Causes include colds, allergies, bronchitis, and damage to parts of the brain. Learning disabilities include dyslexia, dyscalculia, dysgraphia, auditory processing disorder, etc.
4) Chronic illness
Different types of chronic disease include various cancers, asthma, diabetes, sickle cell anemia, hemophilia, arthritis, heart disease, multiple sclerosis, Parkinson's Disease, etc. Causes may include viral/bacterial, breakdown of normal cell death (apoptosis), environmental factors, hereditary conditions, etc.
5) Hearing loss and deafness
Three basic types of hearing loss are conductive hearing loss, sensorineural hearing loss, and mixed hearing loss. Hearing loss is caused by damage to parts of the auditory system.
6) Memory loss
Types of memory loss include alcohol dementia (caused by abuse of alcohol), Alzheimer's, vascular dementia (caused by damage to blood vessels leading to the brain from a stroke, for example), post traumatic memory loss (experienced by soldiers who have fought in wars) and Korsakoff's syndrome (resulting from a lack of thiamine, Vitamin B1).
7) Vision impairment
This includes low to moderate visual impairment, macular degeneration, blindness and legal blindness. Causes include aging, cataracts, glaucoma, and diabetic retinopathy.
It looks like I did not address your question. My apologies. I want to address the types of handicaps in Harrison Bergeron.
In Harrison Bergeron, everyone who is too beautiful, too talented and intelligent or too strong, must wear what are called handicaps. For those too beautiful, masks are to hide their beauty. Those who are too strong must wear weights and those who are too intelligent must wear radio earphones with shrill noises broadcast by the government in order to distract from thinking too much.
Harrison himself must wear masks to hide all three attributes: he is strong, intelligent and good-looking; therefore, he is weighed down with 300 pounds of metal, huge earphones and eyeglasses, a red rubber nose and black caps over his teeth. His eyebrows are also shaved off.