Name three differences between US and Confederate state constitutions in terms of state power relative to the federal government, then relative to federal government power.

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The preamble to the Constitution of the Confederacy differed from the preamble of the United States's Constitution in stating that each state was allowed to act in "its sovereign and independent character." This, in theory, put more power into the hands of each individual state to conduct its business and pass laws as it saw fit, without federal oversight. In contrast, the US Constitution, which was written to strengthen the power of the federal government after the Articles of Confederation proved too weak, stated that its purpose was to "form a more perfect union," not protect states' rights.

The Confederate Constitution gave each state the right to charge duties or taxes on ships from other states that entered their ports. It did this simply by leaving out of its constitution the wording in the US Constitution that forbade this practice. This put more power in the hands of individual states to raise revenue from water commerce with other states.

However, the Confederate Constitution also restricted some rights that were allowed individual states in the US Constitution, such as the right to decide if foreigners could vote in their states. It also forbade individual states from passing legislation interfering with the right of a slave owner to travel through or visit the state.

The Confederate Constitution was very close to the US Constitution in many ways but sought to address Southern grievances over slavery by more firmly imbedding this institution as legal and by giving states, at least in principle, more autonomy. However, like the Union it was leaving, it was caught in the dilemma of trying to protect states' rights while protecting its ability to run an effective central government.

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