Name the cabinets in the presidential cabinet and what each oversees. What are the main functions of the cabinet secretaries?

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The presidential cabinet is derived from article 2, section 2, clause 1 of the Constitution. It consists of the president's body of advisers, namely the vice president and the heads of the various executive departments. The Constitution itself does not actually lay out what the cabinets are. They have changed over time, but right now there are fifteen executive departments that make up the presidential cabinet.

  1. The State Department is led by the Secretary of State. Their job is to serve as the country's head diplomat. They are the main adviser in matters of foreign affairs and maintaining diplomatic relations with other countries.
  2. The Department of Defense is led by the Secretary of Defense. They are second in command of the country's armed forces after the president. They serve as the president's chief adviser on military matters.
  3. The Department of the Treasury is run by the Secretary of the Treasury. They are in charge of most federal financial matters. They serve as the chief economic adviser of the country and help to set economic policy at the federal level.
  4. The Attorney General runs the Department of Justice. They serve as the federal government's top lawyer, representing the government in legal matters and overseeing many federal law enforcement agencies.
  5. The Secretary of Agriculture oversees the Department of Agriculture. They advise the president on matters relating to the farming industry. They also oversee matters that relate to agriculture and certain government agencies, such as the Forest Service and the Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS).
  6. The Department of the Interior is led by the Secretary of the Interior. This large department manages matters related to federal lands. It includes many commissions and bureaus, such as the National Parks, the US Geological Survey, the Bureau of Indian Affairs, and the Bureau of Land Management. The vast majority of the country's public lands and resources are managed by this department.
  7. The Department of Labor is led by the Secretary of Labor. They advise the president on most matters related to jobs and employment. Their department overseas programs related to fair wages, safe work practices, and the general well-being of the country's workers.
  8. The Secretary of Commerce runs the Department of Commerce. They advise the president on matters concerning economic and commercial growth. They gather a lot of economic data for use in setting industrial and economic policies.
  9. The Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) is run by the HUD Secretary. They oversee governmental programs designed to meet the country's residential needs. This department is often in charge of enforcing anti-discrimination laws relating to fair housing. It also manages federal housing loans and grants.
  10. The Secretary of the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) leads one of the largest federal departments. HHS oversees such programs as Medicaid and Medicare. It also is in charge of most health and welfare programs. This includes the Center for Disease Control (CDC), the National Institute of Health (NIH), and the Food and Drug Administration (FDA).
  11. The Department of Energy oversees matters related to fuel and the generation of electricity. Its secretary heads several bureaus that manage issues related to nuclear energy, alternative energy research, and fossil fuels. It also deals with many issues concerning the environmental impact of energy development and use.
  12. The secretary of the Department of Transportation is in charge of the country's land, sea, and air transportation systems. This includes federal highways, air corridors, seaports, and airports. They enforce safety and environmental impact regulations.
  13. The Secretary of Education oversees the Department of Education. Overall, education is a decentralized matter with most policies happening on the state and local levels. However, this department still sets federal education standards and apportions some federal funding to various education initiatives.
  14. The secretary of the Department of Veterans Affairs is tasked with ensuring that vital services are available to the country's many veterans. This mostly comes in the form of benefit programs and health services.
  15. The secretary of the Department of Homeland Security is in charge of protecting the country from terrorist attacks. This department manages border and port security as well as the Coast Guard, the Secret Service, FEMA, and ICE. The secretary of this department advises the president on matters of emergency management.
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