Name the major organelles found in a eukaryotic cell, and describe their functions. From the Modern Biology textbook (Holt)
The cell membrane is a selectively permeable membrane that consists of two layers of lipids with proteins embedded in between. It selectively allows the passage of materials in and out of a cell. Cytoplasm, is the liquid portion of the cell in which many organelles are located. Ribosomes are tiny organelles, found freely floating in the cytoplasm and also along the endoplasmic reticulum. These are sites of protein synthesis. Vacuoles are organelles that are for storage inside a cell. Lysosomes contain enzymes that can be used to digest particles, or to even break down old worn out cells. Golgi apparatus is a place where cell secretions are packaged and made ready for transport. Endoplasmic reticulum are used for transport within the cell. It is a place where proteins are folded into their functional shapes. Mitochondria are used for respiration--a place where glucose is oxidized and ATP is produced for use by the cell. The nucleus contains chromatin. This is the material that makes up the chromosomes and genes. The cell's blueprint is contained in the chromosomes and genes and consists of DNA. The nucleolus is found in the nucleus and makes ribosomes. In animal cells, centrioles are present and aid the cell during mitotic division by forming spindle fibers. In plant cells, chloroplasts are present and are the sites for photosynthetic activity. These are some of the most important organelles in a eukaryotic cell.
Life cannot exist without protoplasm. It is the actual living substance in eukarotes. It performs all the vital functions. Mitochondria are minute bodies occurring often in very large numbers, in form of short rods or long filaments or oval bodies in the cytoplasm.It is a power house of the cell, generating energy.
Golgi bodies are appear as minute net like structures. They are associated with secretions of certain enzymes and hormones. Endoplasmic reticulum is a network of tube like structures distributed throughout the cytoplasm. They are associated with the formation of enzyme, protein synthesis etc. Ribosomes are associated with the membrane of the tubes and also occurring free in the cytoplasm. They are the main seats of protein synthesis.