The first compound shown is named 3,3-dimethyl-pentanol.
The root word used is pentane, which is a 5-carbon alkane, because the longest carbon chain is five carbons in length. The suffix -ol is added because the -OH group makes the compound an alcohol. The two -CH3 groups are called methyl groups. They're on the third carbon because the carbons are numbered starting from the end closest to the -OH group. The prefix 3,3-dimethyl tells us that there are two methyl groups on carbon 3. If the -OH group isn't on the first carbon an infix number must be included in front of the suffix -ol, for example 3,3-dimethyl-pentan-1-ol.
The second compound shown is named propanone.
The -one ending describes the ketone functional group, which is the oxygen double bonded to a carbon, and the root word propane describes a three-carbon alkane. The common name for this compound is acetone.
The third compound shown is named ethoxypentane.
The oxygen that's single bonded to two carbons forms an ether group. Ethers have the form R-O-R. The smaller R-group is named first, followed by oxy, then the larger R-group name. The name of this ketone comes from the root word ethane for a 2-carbon alkane and pentane for a five-carbon alkane.
The fourth compound shown is named butylamine.
The -NH2 group is the amine functional group and the -C4H9 is a butyl group. When the amine group is on the first carbon it's not necessary to include an infix number, which describes the location of the functional group. If the infix is included the name is butan-1-amine. An alternative but usually less preferred way of naming alkyl amines is by using the prefix amino-, whereby this compound would be called amino-butane.