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This is an question that can be answer in many different ways. Also it can be answered in very standard ways. Let me offer some additional information. First, the Romans were polytheistic and some many even believe in the deification of humans. Also they were willing to accepts the gods of other people. So, here are some lesser known gods.
1. Some believed in the deification of emperors.
2. Bacchus, even though the Romans cracked down on them in 186 BC.
3. Some Romans believed in the deification of some virtue, such as virtue and honor.
4. Some believed in the function absence of the gods - Epicureans.
5. Finally, there is the typical answer of Jupiter, Mars, Venus, etc.
There are around 12 major Roman gods and many minor gods. Here are more major gods that haven’t been mentioned yet:
Apollo – The god of music, medicine, and light. One of Apollo's more important daily tasks is to harness his chariot with four horses an drive the Sun across the sky.
Diana – Goddess of the Hunt---In Roman art Diana usually appears as a huntress with bow and arrow, along with a hunting dog or a stag.
Vulcan - God of Fire, Blacksmiths and Craftsmanship
Minerva - Goddess of Wisdom, Learning, and the Arts and Sciences
Ceres - Goddess of agriculture, grain, and crops
There were many Roman gods. Their view of what gods were was very different from modern Western views. They believed that the gods acted much as human beings do, with their own little rivalries and jealousies. They also assigned roles to various gods. One god would be the god of war, one the god of the sea, and so on. Here are a few gods with their roles:
- Jupiter -- king of the gods
- Juno -- queen of the gods
- Neptune -- god of the ocean
- Pluto -- god of death and the underworld
- Mars -- god of war
- Venus -- goddess of love
1)Jupiter,at the Romans, the chief of gods and the people treated as Zeus from Greek mythology. Was considered the supreme deity,light and life-giving, that governed heaven and earth,owned thunder and lightning, rain and unleashed storms etc.The best known name to designate him was Optimus Maximus ( "thebest and biggest).
2)Janus, one of the most ancient gods of Roman mythology. At origin, Janus was a king who ruled the Golden Age of Latium.After death was worshiped. As Lord Protector of Rome was assigned a miracle that saved the city from an invasion of Sabins: while enemies were preparing to go over the walls of the Capitolium, Janus has made to gush in front of them a hot stream, which has forced them to retreat.
3) Saturnus, ancient deity of Italian origin, who patronized agricultural jobs and fruits of the land. Saturnus was identified, by early, with the Titan Cronus, from Greek mythology.
4) Mercury was the god of trade and travelers - and, for this attribute, were built statues at every crossroad - but also the god of the thieves. He was the protector of shepherds and guide of the shadows of the deadland hell. He was generally regarded as the patron of music, of any inventions, of handicrafts, etc.. In Greek mythology, the messenger god was called Hermes.
5) Apollo was the god invoked in travels, those who sailed the sea, which protect cities and new constructions. It said that together with Alcathous, would be helped to rebuild the city Megara, which had been destroyed. Finally, Apollo was considered the god of light (hence the epithet by Phoebus) and was often identified with the Sun itself. Was celebrated in various centers of the Greek world: in Delphi, Delos.
Here are some, I put their Greek names in parentheses.
Saturn (Cronus) : father of Jupiter (Zeus)
Ops (Rhea) : mother of Jupiter (Zeus)
Vulcan (Hephaestus) : the 'non-attractive' son of Juno (Hera)
Mars (Ares) : the spoilt God of War
Cupid (Eros) : youthful and later mischievous God of Love
Neptune (Poseidon) : Lord and Ruler of the (Mediterranean and Black) Sea and Underground Rivers
Pluto (Hades) : Ruler of the Underworld
Ceres (Demeter) : Earth's Goddess of Corn
Bacchus (Dionysus): Earth's God of Wine
Following are some of the Roman gods.
Apollo: God of light, medicine and poetry
Cupid: God of love
Diana: Goddess of hunting and childbirth
Jupiter: ruler of the gods
Mars: God of war
Mercury: God of commerce and science. Also messenger of gods and protector of travellers, vagabonds and thieves.
Minerva: Goddess of crafts, war and wisdom
Neptune: God of sea
Saturn: God of agriculture
Somnus: God of sleep
Venus: Goddess of Love
Vulcan: God of fire and metal working. Also blacksmith for the gods.
The gods were just some mystical powers for early history of Roman religion. After the sixth century, in which they were starting to contact with the Greeks and their culture,they began worship gods with human forms. The Romans were focusing on the phenomenon called pax Deorum, Gods peace, which ensure its prosperity and welfare.
Roman gods were associated with places, circumstances and had become very numerous, that is to say that soon you find a god than a man.
Front door in the house had its own god, Janus;
the hearth had a protecting goddess ,named Vesta, which was also the goddess of fire;
laralia,was the room of the house where offerings were made to the Lari gods, protector of home.
Amorphous Gods prevailed in Roman religion, they not having a personality, but their powers meaning more for believers.
Besides the existing gods, Jupiter, Mars and Quirinus, were taken over others, such as Minerva, Iunona, Castor, Polus, etc. .
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