Athena is one of the most interesting goddesses of the Greek pantheon. She is the patron goddess of the city of Athens, and is both a war goddess and goddess of wisdom. She is an expert in weaving and is often symbolized by an owl. She generally is associated with all forms of skill and craft, including innovations in agriculture and animal husbandry and the gift of olive cultivation to Athens. In Homer, she is the patron of Odysseus.
Unlike most gods and mortals she was not born normally, but emerged full grown from the head of Zeus. Thus she had a virgin birth and was herself a virgin goddess; much of the iconography of Athena became assimilated to the Virgin Mary in the Christian era.
For a thesis, you might focus on comparing Athena with Ares, emphasizing that she is actually more valuable in war because of her wisdom; rather than simply charging blindly ahead, she is a clever strategist.