This question is even more difficult than your last one on beauty...It'll be difficult to answer without evading, to some degree, because of the variety of elements that go into a work of fiction (in addition to the hurdles pointed to in the second post).
As I take it, this is your goal:
- To create a positive set of criteria to judge literay work fairly across cultures in an effort to determine how to assign merit to texts and how to select award winners for international prizes.
- The goal isn't necessarily to raise European/Western esteem for "world literature" but to provide a set of criteria that will allow for equal treatment of works coming from non-western, non-European cultures.
In generating a positive set of criteria, you seem to be tending toward a notion of beauty as an essential or unavoidable factor in judging a text. This makes sense to me, but I'm having a hard time making the leap from aesthetic beauty as a general concept to aesthetic beauty as the basis for a critical framework.
My first problem is the complexity of the novel as a form. There are so many "working parts" of a novel...
But here is one idea: Identify a number of literary elements that characterize a form of literature. Create a set of criteria that essetially ask the question of each element: How well was this element presented, utilized, performed or produced?
A novel might be judged in this way looking at: character; orginality of language; specificity/vividness of language; perspective; setting, atmosphere, landscape; plot; theme; structure.
Looking at these categories, I guess they don't directly relate to beauty but to "perceived quality" or perceived effectiveness, which could be said to be judged on aesthetic grounds.