Migration within a country is closely linked to the socio-economic conditions of the population. Debate which push factors and pull factors would motivate (1) migration from rural to urban areas, (2) migration from urban to suburban areas and (3) migration from urban to rural areas, respectively.

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The factors that would motivate migration from rural to urban areas include the push factors of crop failures, drought, poverty, lack of clean water, lack of healthcare and education, natural disasters, war, and others. The pull factors motivating people to go to urban areas include job opportunities, opportunities for education, food, stability, a good economy, no wars, entertainment, and better healthcare. 

Migration from cities to suburban areas is driven by the push factors of pollution, overcrowding, expensive and insufficient housing, crime, expensive healthcare, and lack of job opportunities in cities. Pull factors drawing people to suburbs include more affordable housing, more spacious housing, less crime,  and convenience of shopping and other entertainment. 

The push factors that would drive people to move from urban to rural areas include pollution in cities, overcrowding in cities, expensive or insufficient housing, instability or war in urban areas, crime, and expensive healthcare. Pull factors drawing people to rural areas would include less pollution, open spaces for settlement and play, less crowding, more safety, and more affordable healthcare and housing. 

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