Methods used to achieve independence are classified into two;
- Violent action
- Non-violent action
Violent action included physical confrontation between the colonialists and the people in the colonies. America declared her independence from the British and was forced to engage in armed conflict to affirm their intentions and secure their independence. The American people organized themselves into military units and engaged the British army in armed conflict which resulted in a decisive victory for the Americans.
In Africa, a number of countries mounted armed conflicts to secure their independence. In Kenya, ethnic groups mounted violent resistance against British rule. For instance, the Mau Mau waged vicious guerrilla warfare against the British in Kenya’s fight for self rule.
Non-violent action was made famous by Gautama Mahatma Gandhi and helped India achieve her independence. The non-violent techniques included hunger strikes, economical sabotage through boycotting the purchase of British products, lack of cooperation through labor strikes and political/ constitutional negotiations and dialogue. Similar tactics were employed in Ghana through the leadership of Kwame Nkrumah and helped the country achieve her independence.