In Methodology Research, how would I write objectives that are measurable, establish the discrepancy between what the children know/do, and what they need to know/do to reach the goal? How can I predict the range of change expected in the time allotted, and support the goal of the AR project?
I am currently a teacher and what I do to set objectives is always go to the state standards. Many states have adopted the Common Core State Standards but the state you live in, may have their own set of standards. Always look at the standards and whichever standard you want them to be able to excel at, set that as the objective. For example, standard 5.NBT.A.1 (Common Core State Standards) say students must:
Recognize that in a multi-digit number, a digit in one place represents 10 times as much as it represents in the place to its right and 1/10 of what it represents in the place to its left.
You would set this as your objective--what you want students to know by the end of the lesson.
In order to set the discrepancy of what children know and what they need to know, you should get data based on their current level. So assess students by possibly giving a pre-test to see where they are then give them a post-test when the lesson is complete.
To predict the range of how students will progress in AR, I would look at their past data. Look at their Lexile score the beginning of the year before and at the end to see how much they progressed. If they went from a 2nd to 3rd grade level, you could expect them to jump another grade level this year.
Support the AR goal by giving students the opportunity to take practice tests for AR as well as assist them in reaching their comprehension goals. Practice close reading with them and support them while reading. Hope this helped!