Please answer the following questions: Answer                                                               - A. B. C. D. E. Distinctive human characteristic...

Please answer the following questions:

Answer

                                                              - A. B. C. D. E.

Distinctive human characteristic

Read Answer Items for Question 1

                                                              - A. B. C. D. E.

Culture

Read Answer Items for Question 1

                                                              - A. B. C. D. E.

Structure

Read Answer Items for Question 1

                                                              - A. B. C. D. E.

Agency

Read Answer Items for Question 1

                                                              - A. B. C. D. E.

Activity which is not its own reward, but which will lead to future gratification.

Read Answer Items for Question 1

Answer

ability to plan, organize, and collectively participate in goal directed behavior.

People's individual and group efforts to accomplish goals while interacting with social environment

opportunities and constraints that shape job availability and returns to work.

work

systems that attach individuals to work, harness their commitments, and direct their efforts.

10 points   

QUESTION 2

  1.        

Although the work ethic defines labor as a virtue, it also has pathological dimensions.

Answer

 True

 False

10 points   

QUESTION 3

  1.        

The focus on social class structures is based on the writing of:

Answer

Karl Marx

Adam Smith

Emile Durkheim

Sigmund Freud

10 points   

QUESTION 4

  1.        

Organic solidarity is to mechanical solidarity as:

Answer

Durkheim is to Marx

oligopoly is to monopoly

interaction is to isolation

traditional is to modern

urban is to rural

10 points   

QUESTION 5

  1.        

Social structure organizes work, while culture gives meaning to work.

Answer

 True

 False

10 points   

QUESTION 6

  1.        

When sociologists conduct sample surveys, they ask questions of a systematic sample of people. What is the relationship of the sample to to population of interest?

Answer

The sample answers questions the population refuses to answer.

The sample is representative of the population.

The sample represents only the working part of the population.

The sample is the same as the population.

The sample has a smaller response error than the population.

10 points   

QUESTION 7

  1.        

Until the rise of steam ships, sail was the principle means of sea transportation and entire industries were created to build and sail these ships. Yet, in the short period of time between 1880 and 1920 sail ships almost ceased to be used for commerce and became expensive pleasure craft. The industries that supported sailing ships either adapted to coal and later oil, or they went out of business. According to Joseph Schumpeter this is an example of:

Answer

social alienation

dog-eat-dog capitalism

creative destruction

designed obsolescence

10 points   

QUESTION 8

  1.        

A case study of an establishment is most likely to present a misleading picture of the firm if:

Answer

the firm is a subsidiary.

the firm's parent company is a conglomerate.

the firm has only one establishment.

the firm is a parent company.

the firm is publicly held.

10 points   

QUESTION 9

  1.        

As developed in Hodson and Sullivan (Chapter 1), many of the systems of work have special significance within the evolution of the workplace. Match each of the systems of work below with their significance.

Answer

                                                              - A. B. C. D. E.

craft guilds (Middle Ages)

Read Answer Items for Question 9

                                                              - A. B. C. D. E.

early guilds (Roman Era)

Read Answer Items for Question 9

                                                              - A. B. C. D. E.

vertical integration

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                                                              - A. B. C. D. E.

manorial system (Middle Ages)

Read Answer Items for Question 9

                                                              - A. B. C. D. E.

putting-out system

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Answer

The availability of cheap labor offered little positive for innovation in the organization of work.

Master workers trained those with less skill.

Most production was consumed locally

This used a basis of pricing that helped undercut the remnants of the guilds.

Salaried managers become major figures in corporations.

10 points   

QUESTION 10

  1.        

Otzi's remains indicate that even long before the invention of writing human societies included:

Answer

all of these

roles

specialization

division of labor

10 points   

QUESTION 11

  1.        

Match the following ideologies about work with the types of societies of which they were characteristic:

Answer

                                                   - A. B. C. D.

primitive societies

Read Answer Items for Question 11

                                                   - A. B. C. D.

agricultural societies

Read Answer Items for Question 11

                                                   - A. B. C. D.

early capitalist societies

Read Answer Items for Question 11

                                                   - A. B. C. D.

advanced industrial societies

Read Answer Items for Question 11

Answer

Work is associated with piety and grace.

Work is a route for upward mobility

Work is not separate from other daily activities.

Work is a burden, made more difficult by powerful landlords.

10 points   

QUESTION 12

  1.        

In "Putting on the Hair Shirt";  (Box 2.2), the ethnographer demonstrated an ability to:

Answer

participate fully in the work group.

learn sensitive information about on-the-job failures.

operate covertly

create a Hawthorne effect

10 points   

QUESTION 13

  1.        

Which of the following yields the largest number of people?

Answer

All the people who receive unemployment benefits.

All of the people who ave stopped looking for work because they believe they cannot find it.

All of the people who register for work at the state employment office.

All of the people who are unemployed plus discouraged workers

All of the people who are unemployed

Asked on by ekaterina1

2 Answers | Add Yours

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pohnpei397 | College Teacher | (Level 3) Distinguished Educator

Posted on

On this site, it is not possible for us to simply answer an entire test for you.  Therefore, I will pick a few of these questions and answer them. 

For Question 13, the best answer is “All of the people who are unemployed plus discouraged workers.  The last option cannot be right because unemployed people will surely be fewer than unemployed people and discouraged workers combined.  The first answer cannot be right because not all unemployed people (and no discouraged workers) get unemployment benefits.  The second option cannot be right because that is the definition of discouraged workers and they will not be as numerous as discouraged workers plus unemployed people.  Finally, not everyone who is unemployed or a discouraged worker will register at a state office.  Therefore, the option that has the most people is the one indicated above.

For Question 10, the best answer is “All of These.”  Otzi’s remains show us that he belonged to the warrior or leadership class.  If there are some people who are warriors and leaders, this means there must be different roles for different people.  This also means that there must be specialization.  When people fulfill specialized roles, that is division of labor.  Therefore, “all of these” is the best answer.

Finally, the correct answer to Question 7 is “creative destruction.”  When Schumpeter created this term, he meant that progress in a capitalist society inevitably involves some companies being destroyed so that new companies and new products can be created.  This is what happened to sailing ships when steamships came around.

Sources:
suvleena's profile pic

suvleena | Student, Grade 10 | (Level 2) eNoter

Posted on

Again, because I cannot answer the entire test, I will also answer some of the questions.

QUESTION 3       

The focus on social class structures is based on the writing of:

Karl Marx- He wrote about the bourgeois and proletariat classes and is the basis for much of modern thinking about social classes

Adam Smith- He wrote about early capitalism and how the invisible hand of the market guides prices

Emile Durkheim- His writing focuses on social structures, but not social classes

Sigmund Freud- He developed the field of psychoanalysis and is one of the first to come to mind when discussing psychology

QUESTION 6      

When sociologists conduct sample surveys, they ask questions of a systematic sample of people. What is the relationship of the sample to to population of interest?

The sample answers questions the population refuses to answer

The sample is representative of the population.  By definition, a sample is a subset of the population which is used to represent the population when conducting statistical research.

The sample represents only the working part of the population.

The sample is the same as the population.

The sample has a smaller response error than the population.

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