How are men within organisations constrained by masculine stereotypes? Use examples of a specific organisation (not the name) in explaining your answer.
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Here's an interesting one. If large missionary organizations like World Vision, Campus Crusade for Christ and Billy Graham Crusades, etc, can qualify as corporations, men are constrained (i.e., limited, bound, restricted, held back) by stereotypes that require dominant control of their families. This dominance extends to work in that women in equal positions are not expected to have equal say. If it is perceived that a man does not have this domestic dominance, or does not exercise the attitude of "last say" dominance at work, his career may be not advance, and it is possible, if the breach from the stereotype is perceived as great enough, a man may even lose his position altogether.
Stereotypes are powerful, because it gives pressure on people to act in a certain way. In the case of men, depending on where you are, there are certain characteristics that they should possess. If they do not possess them, then they would be seen a socially unacceptable. In terms of organizations, a man who goes against the stereotypes would seen as odd, at best. Moreover, men would have harder time breaking into certain areas that are dominated by women, such as child rearing jobs, early education, and nursing.
Men are generally expected to be free of any "emotional" issues that might affect work performance. As a male, I know my perception might very well be skewed, but it seems that I see women's feelings taken into account to a greater degree when supervisors give feedback or outright criticism of work performance. I've witnessed this in the educatonal and human resources fields.
With that being said, I didn't think it was a very big deal, nor did I think it had a major impact on a male's ability to do his job or advance within the organization.
While I have no experience in the business world, it is my understanding that, in years past, it would have been unthinkable for a male employee to request time off to attend to a sick child or parent. There apparently is some change occurring in this regard, but I wonder if there are still employers who frown on a male taking leave too often for family reasons.
I've worked with a coach before at a school that was very upset that he wasn't fitting in because he didn't drink, tell dirty jokes, or swear- masculine stereotypes associated with coaching. He was very concerned that if he didn't conform he wouldn't be able to advance his career or fit in with the other coaches.
Masculine stereotypes control the behavior of men in organizations. Those of higher positions may not fraternize with those on lower levels. Senior personnel are expected to dress accordingly, be in control of one's emotions—though showing temper is not necessarily frowned upon, in general (I believe). Men will joke with other men at their level, but not with junior employees, and perhaps women as well. Men are expected to be strong leaders, and never show a soft side.
These are, of course, generalizations. There are many companies that consider these behaviors somewhat archaic. Fridays are dress-down days. Holidays find office members celebrating on equal footing, and kindness to one's employees is seen as a desireable and commendable attitude. This promotes a more positive work environment, and motivates people to work together and help each other.
The stereotypes keep people compartmentalized, guaranteeing that "classes" do not intermingle...much the same way the aristocracy in Europe at one time would not mingle with peasants or the emerging middle-class, post Middle Ages. These stereotypes provide a strong sense of leadership, where actions are not likely questioned. Stereotypes constrain: while leadership is important and setting examples is important, a lack of interaction between all levels of personnel can promote jealousy, competition and distrust.
Men in organizations are constrained by masculine stereotypes because they have to act the way that men are supposed to act. A man who acts in an overly "feminine" way will be seen as an oddball. Most organizations do not value oddballs. Therefore, men (and women) are pressured to act according to societal stereotypes.
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