This is a great question. There are many macro level factors that have a profound affect on businesses. In light of this I will have to be selective. I will name three of them.
First, the unemployment number is one of the most important to consider. If people do not have jobs, then the economy will not be good. This will in turn directly influence profitability. So, companies will have to consider this number very carefully.
Second, if a company has international exposure, then it will have to look at the strength of currencies. For example, if a nation prints a lot of money, then their currency will become weak. If a currency becomes weak, then their products will be cheaper to export. Conversely, if a nation's currency is strong, it will be difficult to buy from that country. Attention will have to be given to what central banks do and it affect currencies.
Finally, the price of oil is another important factor. As you know, the barrel of oil will have a direct influence on products. If oil jumps 10%, then things will be 10% more expensive. If there is unrest in the Middle East, then the price of oil can go up 20%. This can cripple an economy, especially if goods have to travel far distances.
In conclusion, there are many factors that all companies have to examine. The three above are some of the most important.