As you say, there were many new Protestant (they werent' called that yet back then) denominations that sprang up after the Reformation, which started in 1517.
Some of the more famous new denominations were ones that ended up being named after their leaders. Here are a few of them:
- Lutherans -- they are, of course, named after their leader, Martin Luther, who was the main figure connected with the Reformation.
- Mennonites. They are named after their leader, Menno Simons, who was a Dutchman.
- Hussites. They are named after John (or Johan) Hus, a Czech priest.
Your request is an understatement. There are tons and tons of denominations, because of the protestant reformation. Last I checked, there are over 20,000 denominations worldwide. However, I think you are asking for the main ones, which came out of the Reformation. Here are a few. First, Presbyterianism came out of the Reformation. The person associated with this denomination is John Knox of Scotland. The Westminster Confession of Faith is usually adopted as the theological standards. Second, the Anabaptists came out of the Reformation as well. Simon Meno is associated with this movement. The Anglican church is another as Henry VI broke away from Rome. Thomas Cramner is one of the most famous leaders of this movement, who was later killed under Mary.