Management is science as well as an art as effective management is based on use of scientific methods as well as on personal skills and judgement that we frequently associated with arts. Characteristics of management that correspond to scientific methods include the following.
- Many management methods are based on use of systematic study and analysis. For example, we use many mathematical models such as linear programming, and EOQ formula to optimize management decision.
- There are specific principles of effective management that have been developed on the basis of study and analysis of facts. At times these methods or insights also use the scientific methods of experimentation. For example the famous Hawthorn Studies used observation of facts as these existed as well as experimented with behavior of people under different conditions.
- There is a large body of scientific knowledge available in documented form. This knowledge can be used by anyone interested in learning ways of effective management. An art cannot be learned by such accumulated knowledge.