Make a comparison between Derivational affixes and Inflectional affixes?
Affixes are lexical additions to the root of a word. The purpose is to either change the meaning or class of a word (derivational) or to modify a word to indicate its grammatical components and function (inflectional).
Let us explore this further:
The word "derivational" relates to something having been placed under a category, group, or classification. Hence, the affix is called derivational because the job of this particular lexical addition is to change the word class of the original root by making a completely different word.
Derivational and inflectional affixes are added to nouns, verbs, adjectives and adverbs. Examples of derivational affixes include:
For nouns: -ion, -ance, -ment, -ness
Example: kind- relates to categorizing (a kind of...)
while kindness- is a completely different word that means "a good nature". Notice how the derivational affix changed the word "kind", an adjective, into kindness, which is a noun.
Derivational affixes that create verbs are often en-, be-, de-, em-, and -ify...also, -ize, -en and -ate.
Ex: soft (noun) turns into soften (verb) with the affix -en.
Now, on to the inflectional affixes.
The word "inflectional" relates to expanding or changing the function of a word. Hence, the affix in this case is called inflectional because its task is to expand its grammatical function within the word.
[the] eight inflectional affixes ... depend on the function of a word in a sentence. (Mark Canada, University of North Carolina at Pembrooke)
Hence, inflectional affixes are the morphemes of the word that indicate whether the word is:
- singular or plural (for nouns)
- past, present, or progressive (for verbs)
- superlatives (for adjectives and adverbs)
- big-bigger-biggest (-er, -est are inflectional affixes)
- calls, called, calling (-s, -ed, -ing, are inflectional affixes)
- fox, foxes, fox's and foxes' are inflectional because they differentiate between singular/plural and possessives.
English has only eight inflectional affixes--that is, affixes that depend on the function of a word in a sentence. For example, the inflectional affix s on the end of pot makes the word plural. The remaining affixes in English are derivational affixes, which change the form or meaning of words. (Mark Canada)
check Approved by eNotes Editorial