One goal of Louis XIV was to strengthen the influence of Catholicism in France. Many thinkers in the seventeenth century (and earlier) believed that religious unity was crucial to national unity. The idea of religious toleration was often seen as a threat to domestic tranquillity. Louis accepted this view and therefore did a great deal to try to suppress Protestantism in France.
His ideology was definitely that of divine right, as best exemplified by the writings of Bossuet, or perhaps just Louis's famous (maybe apocryphal) statement that "L'etat c'est moi." His domestic goals were to do everything to increase his power, which he was pretty good at accomplishing due to effective administration. His foreign policy goals, though, were probably more significant, and they involved almost constant warfare in the Netherlands, the German principalities, the Iberian peninsula, and locations in the New World and even India. Generally, his motive was territorial acquisition, and also to achieve what the Hapsburgs had been so good at, pushing Bourbon dynastic claims on European thrones.
Louis's ideology was the ideology of absolute monarchy. He believed that kings ruled by divine right. Because of this, his goal was to take all the power for himself. He truly believed that he was the French state and should be in complete control.