In "The Lottery," Shirley Jackson does not name a single individual as the leader of the town. We can suppose, however, that Mr. Summers plays an important role in the town's governance because he conducts the lottery every year. He is a leading figure in civic life and, aside from the lottery, also organizes the town's other activities, like its square dances and the teen club. Mr. Summers is also a successful businessman who owns and operates the town's coal business.
It is Mr. Summer's responsibility to mark one slip of paper with a "black spot," which indicates that a person will be stoned. It is also his responsibility to stir up the papers inside the black box and to oversee the drawing of the lottery every year. To be bestowed with such responsibility suggests that Mr. Summers is the only person who can be trusted to carry out the task.