Figurative language is the use of words to express something more than a literal meaning. Shirley Jackson uses figurative language at several points in "The Lottery" to enrich the narrative and illustrate her setting more vividly.
The eNotes Guide to Literary Terms defines a simile as
[A] figure of speech that makes a comparison of two unlike things with the help of comparative words such as like or as.
The phrases "fly like a bird" and "as red as a rose" are both similes.
As the other Educators have noted, there is only one simile in "The Lottery," which comes before the official lottery proceedings begin. Mrs. Hutchinson has been speaking to her friend and leaves her to go stand with her husband.
She tapped Mrs. Delacroix on the arm as a farewell and began to make her way through the crowd.
The tap on the arm stands in here for a more obvious form of farewell, like saying "goodbye." While in a literal sense, a tap on the arm is just a tap on the arm, in a figurative sense, Mrs. Hutchinson's gesture is meant to express an end to her conversation with Mrs. Delacroix and an indication that she is leaving.
The eNotes Guide to Literary Terms defines personification as
[A] form of figurative language that assigns human qualities or characteristics to something that is nonhuman (such as animals, inanimate objects, or ideas).
Expressions like "the wind howled" and "the brook sang" are both examples of personification.
Personification is used in a few places in "The Lottery," often to describe the mood of the assembled people. When Mrs. Hutchinson joins her husband, Jackson writes that
soft laughter ran through the crowd.
The laughter "runs" just like Mrs. Hutchinson walks, as if it is another person in the crowd.
After the lots have been drawn, everybody falls silent for a moment, in what Jackson calls
a breathless pause.
By describing the pause itself as "breathless", Jackson conveys the anxiety of the people in the crowd, who all hesitate before checking the lots they have drawn.
The eNotes Guide to Literary Terms defines a metaphor as
[An] implied analogy or unstated comparison which imaginatively identifies one thing with another.
"The Lottery" contains many metaphors, such as the following:
[the] tradition...represented by the black box.
The black box from which the lots are drawn is the oldest piece of "paraphernalia" pertaining to the annual ritual of the lottery, and it consequently stands for continuity. It is a physical reminder of the origins of the lottery, which date back to the founding of the village. The box itself is supposedly made up of pieces of the original box, which makes it a potent symbol of how long the villagers have been performing this ritual.