The first woman to ever win the Nobel Peace Prize (in 1931), Jane Addams (1860-1935) was one of the most important American activists of the late 19th and early 20th centuries.
- She was the founder of Hull House, a settlement home in Chicago specializing in artistic, social and educational programs for newly arrived European immigrants. By 1912, Hull House had expanded to 13 buildings plus a summer camp. More than 500 such settlement houses followed throughout the United States.
- Addams was considered "the most prominent woman of the Progressive Era."
- She was a philosopher (one of the first women experienced in the field), sociologist and author.
- She was a leader of the Woman's Suffrage Movement and an outspoken pacifist for world peace.
- She suffered from Pott's Disease, a form of tuberculosis of the spine, which caused a curvature of her back.
- Her father was a close friend and supporter of Abraham Lincoln.
- Never married, Addams lived most of her life with "her intimate friend...with whom she shared a romantic friendship," Ellen Gates Starr--a co-founder of Hull House.
- She was an outspoken critic of World War I; she campaigned for Theodore Roosevelt's failed Presidential bid on the Progressive Party ticket; and she was a member and chairman of the Women's Peace Party.
- She was an advocate of the League of Nations, and her beliefs helped shape the United Nations.