Why does Golding create two contrasting characters in Lord of the Flies who struggle over the leadership of the island?

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Golding uses the characters of Ralph and Jack to symbolize the internal struggle present in all humans. Ralph's character is the archetype for democracy, civility, and morality while Jack's character is the archetype for anarchy, violence, and carnal desires. William Golding uses these characters to represent different aspects of Sigmund Freud's psychoanalytical theory. Jack represents the Id, which is the untethered, primal part of the human mind that needs to be controlled. Jack embodies the Id because he is constantly concerned with killing the pigs and openly opposes Ralph's leadership in favor of barbarism and violence. Ralph represents the concept of the Ego. According to Freud, the Ego is what keeps the Id in check, and stands between the Super Ego and Id. Ralph understands the morally correct and civil approach to leadership, yet still struggles with his desires. In a sense, the function of the Ego is to compromise between the primal Id and the Super Ego, which is only concerned with society's rules and regulations. These two contrasting characters metaphorically represent the struggles humans face when we suppress our desires to live up to society's expectations. Throughout the novel, Golding suggests that humans are inherently primal, and the Id takes full control when society's rules and regulations are not enforced, which is evident by Jack's rise to power.

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