long notes on each.... 1-subject 2-verb 3-object 4-direct object 5-indirect object 6-nouns 7-noun phrase 8-compliment 9-adjective 10-adverbi want an engineering standard answer.....

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  1. Subject: the who or what of the sentence.  Example: John threw the ball to Jane.
  2. Verb: the action or state of being of a sentence.  Example: John threw the ball to Jane.  -or- John is tall.
  3. Object: must be a noun, cannot be the subject of the sentence - can either be direct, indirect, or an object of the preposition.  Example: John threw the ball to Jane.  ball = direct object; Jane = object of preposition.
  4. Direct object: must be a noun and can only be present in a sentence with action verbs because it receives the action of the verb.  Example from above: John threw what?  (Answer, the ball.)
  5. Indirect object: must be a noun (usually a person) and can only be present in a sentence which also contains a direct object because this object receives the direct object.  Examples: John threw Jane the ball.  -or- John brought Jane some cookies.  Jane = indirect object; ball and cookies = direct objects.
  6. Noun: person, place, thing, idea.  Examples: John, Washington, ball, love.
  7. Noun phrase: a phrase is a group of words that does not contain a subject or a verb.  A noun phrase is a group of words containing a noun (duh) and any modifiers - adjectives.  Example: John, a ruggedly handsome, tall, and confident man, wooed Jane.
  8. Complement: any word or phrase that gives a subject, object, or verb more completion.  Examples: John is tall.  Tall = subject complement.  John made Jane happy.  Happy = object complement.  John gave Jane all his money.  Jane and money = verb complements.
  9. Adjective: describes (or modifies, makes more specific) a noun.  Examples: I would like a million dollars, pink roses, and that fabulous house.
  10. Adverb: describes (or modifies) a verb, adjective, or another adverb.  Examples: John runs really quickly.  She always eats lunch at noon.  The dog's hair is too long.